The tapestry of Indian mythology is woven with tales that touch the depths of human emotions. One such immortal story is that of Purūravā and Urvaśī, vividly chronicled in the Rigveda's tenth Mandala (R̥g. 10.95.1 to 18). Spanning 18 mantras, this narrative captures the fragile nature of human relationships and the transcendence of divine love.
The Divine Romance
Urvaśī, a celestial nymph known as an Apsarā, enters into a Gandharva marriage with King Purūravā. Their married life flourishes for four years, culminating in the birth of their son, Ayu. However, the tale takes a turn when, due to a broken vow, Urvaśī desires to leave Purūravā. The king, utterly distraught, attempts to hold her back. His lamentations echo sentiments of intense grief: thoughts of death, the futility of existence without his beloved, and profound despair. To this, Urvaśī responds with a poignant verse:
"Purūravā, do not succumb to death, do not fall, let no malevolent wolves harm you.
Friendships with women are transient; their hearts are akin to those of hyenas."
This mantra subtly suggests that romantic relationships, even those borne out of genuine love, may have an end tinged with sorrow.
Legacy of the Tale
The popularity of the Purūravā-Urvaśī saga transcended the Vedic texts. It found mentions in various Brahmana scriptures, Purāṇas, and epics like the Mahābhārata. The Shatapatha Brāhmaṇa (11.5.1) offers an expansive version of this story. However, its most exquisite rendition is seen in Kālidāsa's drama, 'Vikramorvaśīya,' where the narrative is brought to life with poetic eloquence.
The Metaphorical Interpretation
Both the R̥gveda and the Yajurveda provide insights into Urvaśī's identity. While she is unequivocally an Apsarā, she is also metaphorically represented as 'Vidyut' or lightning. The Yajurveda declares:
"Urvaśī and Pūrvacitti are Apsarās. They emit a radiant glow, and their predominant force is that of lightning."
This allegorical interpretation enriches the story, hinting at the ephemeral nature of lightning, mirroring the transient nature of Purūravā and Urvaśī's love.
The Symbolism of Urvashi as Lightning in the Rigveda
The ancient scriptures of India, particularly the Rigveda, are often embedded with layers of meaning, encompassing both the esoteric and the apparent. Among these layers is the intriguing symbolism of Urvashi as lightning.
Delving deep into the mantras of the Rigveda, one encounters a myriad of words that hint towards this association of Urvashi with lightning:
1. vidyunna yā patantī - Mantra 10: Urvashi shines brightly, much like a flash of lightning.
2. durāpanā vāt ivāhamasmi - Mantra 2: Urvashi remains elusive, akin to the wind.
3. apyā - Mantra 10: Urvashi is believed to have been birthed from water or clouds.
4. antarikṣaprām - Mantra 17: Urvashi roams the sky.
5. rajaso vimānīm - Mantra 17: Urvashi has the power to create water. From these references, it becomes evident that Urvashi symbolizes lightning.
The Nirukta, an ancient Indian treatise on etymology, provides an interesting interpretation for the name "Pururavas". "purū" means 'abundant' and "ravas" indicates a thundering sound. Thus, Pururavas can be likened to a thundercloud, as denoted by the phrase purūravā bahudhā rorūyate - Nirukta 10.46.
As for Urvashi, Yaska’s Nirukta sheds light on her name as stemming from two parts: "uru", which means vast or expansive, and "aśī", which stands for encompassing or reaching out to. The union of Pururavas and Urvashi gave rise to their offspring named Ayu, which translates to both 'life-giver' and 'grain'. Thus, through these interpretations, Pururavas (or the thundercloud) covers the expansive sky, and when it meets Urvashi (lightning), rain ensues. Rain, in turn, leads to the growth of grain, sustaining human life and ensuring longevity.
Furthermore, the term "apsarā" is explained as a celestial entity of radiant beauty. Derived from the root "aps", meaning form or beauty, and the suffix "rā", denoting possession, an apsarā embodies stunning beauty. Another interpretation of apsarā is "apsu saratīti apsarā", indicating one that moves through water. This aligns with the idea of celestial lightning traversing through the clouds or water.
To encapsulate, this narrative imparts a vivid portrayal of the monsoon season. During this period, the thundercloud (Pururavas) and lightning (Urvashi) become inseparable, representing their passionate union. As the monsoon season culminates, the lightning parts ways from the clouds, symbolizing their separation. From the rains, crops germinate, exemplifying their offspring, Ayu.
This beautiful allegory drawn from the Rigveda not only reflects the natural phenomena of thunder, lightning, and rain but also resonates with the cycle of life, love, and separation.
In conclusion, the story of Purūravā and Urvaśī is not merely a romantic saga but a profound reflection on the nature of relationships, human desires, and the transient beauty of life. It serves as a reminder that even in tales of divine beings, emotions and predicaments are deeply human, resonating across time and cultures.
- Hemanth Kumar G